Indian antiquities under threat: Are we aware of the implications?

Indian antiquities under threat: Are we aware of the implications?

Mayank Singh and Anuraag Saxena| Aug 27, 2017, 01:11 IST

Neeraj Kumar, the former Delhi police chief, in his book ‘Dial D for Dons: Inside Stories of CBI Case Missions’, narrates how a part of the ransom raised from the kidnapping of Partha Pratim Roy Burman, chairman-cum-managing director of Khadim Shoes, in 2001 financed the chief 9/11 attacker Mohammad Atta. Aftab Ansari, Kumar says in his book, who had kidnapped Burman, transferred around $100,000 from the ransom to Omar Sheikh, who in turn transferred it to Mohammad Atta. Sheikh incidentally was released from prison as exchange for passengers held hostage after the hijacking of Indian Airlines plane to Kandahar in 1999. He has since been sentenced to death in Pakistan for the murder of The Wall Street Journal journalist Daniel Pearl. Ansari has also been sentenced to death for his role in the 2002 attack on the US cultural centre in Kolkata. Both await the execution of their punishments.

The web of funds generated from crime have become so intrinsic to terrorism that it would be foolhardy to wave away the relationship as delusional rants of conspiracy theorists. In a world which is shrinking and where people continue to shrink further, terrorists are tapping into organised crime syndicates for terror recruits and money laundering. So, what superficially might appear to be a petty car stealing gang, could be supplier of stolen vehicles for a suicide bombing mission. One needs to look no further than the Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI) utilising Dawood Ibrahim for the 1993 Mumbai blasts. ISI facilitated training, finances, arms & ammunitions and explosives, whereas Dawood lent the strike force. Funds generated from supply of drugs, kidnapping, extortion and gun running have generally been considered as the interlocutor between criminal gangs and terrorist groups. Unscrupulous terrorists have used finances generated from things they publicly despise, to assault the very civilisation which produces them.

The United Nations was quick to realise that in addition to the funds generated through the gas fields of Mosul, bank robberies, human trafficking and ransom, trafficking of art and antiquities was also being used by the Islamic State (IS) to finance terror activities. The IS had made a grand show for its followers by demolishing monuments after wresting control of the areas nestling cradles of ancient civilisations-Palmyra, Aleppo, Mosul and Raqqa in Syria and Iraq. Therefore, whilst IS publicly destroyed Saint Elijah’s Monastery in Mosul and Roman era monuments in Palmyra, ostensibly as an obligation to religious tenets, they had no qualms in surreptitiously pilfering the heritage and art items into the international antiquity market to fund itself.

The UN acknowledged the criminality indulged in by IS through UNSCResolution 2199 (2015), as it generated “income from engaging directly or indirectly in the looting and smuggling of cultural heritage items from archaeological sites, museums, libraries, archives, and other sites in Iraq and Syria, which is being used to support their recruitment efforts and strengthen their operational capability to organize and carry out terrorist attacks”. The resolution further requested member states “to take appropriate steps to prevent the trade in Iraqi and Syrian cultural property and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, and religious importance illegally removed”, from Iraq and Syria.

Subsequent to UNSC resolution 2199, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) issued an advisory stating, “Purchasing an object looted and/ or sold by the Islamic State may provide financial support to a terrorist organization and could be prosecuted under 18 USC 233 A.”

The advisory was evidently in light of the fact that the US which is the world’s largest single market for arts and antiquities-accounting for 29.5% of the global total-remains a highly unregulated open market for these products. Unregulated markets make such transactions susceptible to crimes such as trafficking, money laundering, and terrorist financing. The US Congress was, therefore, compelled to pass ‘HR-2285: Prevent Trafficking in Cultural Property Act’ to stop implicit funding of attacks on its own forces in Iraq and Syria.

The Antiquities Coalition in its infographic indicates, “In 2016 alone, $146,960,100 worth came into the United States, just in declared imports of arts, collectors pieces, and antiques from the world’s ten nations with the most terrorist activity. All of these countries have a rich cultural heritage, which is under threat from looting and trafficking, and all also have ties to violent extremist organizations, many of which are already known to fund themselves through cultural racketeering.”

While the US has imposed restrictions on antiquities from Iraq, Egypt and Syria, the lack of regulation with other terrorist-affected states implies that antiquities could continue to flow into the markets unhindered. The data compiled by Antiquities Coalition suggests that India, which is among the ten terrorism infested nations as per Global Terrorism Index 2016, accounts for imports of antiquities to the tune of $79,092,426-more than 50% of the total imports into the US.

Interestingly, Subhash Kapoor, India’s most notorious antique smuggler, ran a posh gallery in Manhattan in New York before being extradited to India from Germany in 2012.

Kapoor ran operations around the world, befooling even authentic galleries like the National Gallery of Australia by creating forged documents for stolen items from India making them appear genuine even to the trained eyes. In 2014, then Australian prime minister Tony Abbott returned a 900-year-old Shiva (Nataraja) sculpture allegedly smuggled by Kapoor and sold to NGA for $5million, during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Australia. In October 2015, German Chancellor Angela Merkel returned a 10th-century Durga idol stolen from Kashmir and allegedly smuggled out by Kapoor.

Incidentally, it is only the robust personal foreign policy initiatives of Modi bearing fruits with countries coming forward to return stolen India heritage. Institutional Indian initiative for recovery of stolen antiquities has otherwise been lacklustre.

And what makes India vulnerable to these antique predators?

The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) in a scathing indictment in 2013 ripped apart the apathy displayed by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). CAG said ASI “did not maintain a reliable database of the exact number of protected monuments under its jurisdiction”.

“The ASI,” continued CAG, “as the custodian of antiquities, did not even maintain a database of total number of antiquities in its possession.” The CAG castigated ASI’s “efforts to retrieve stolen items as completely ineffective”.

The issues red flagged by CAG indicate a scary state of affairs surrounding the protection of Indian heritage. An archaic Indian Antiquities Act 1972 exacerbates the crisis confronting the period pieces. The inefficacy of the Act is evident from the fact that it lacks even the provisions of registration of antiquity items, which is fundamental to cataloguing and thereby protecting them. The Act does not prescribe for an enforcement division or even methodology to protect antiquity from rapacious treasure hunters. Lack of legal framework prohibits ASI from engaging with foreign agencies delegated for antiquity protection as per their laws. For instance, ASI does not have the force of law to interact with the homeland security in the US, which has specific powers mandated by law for antiquity protection.

An apathetic ASI and lack of adequate laws are, however, only part of the narrative which confronts India’s struggle to retain its heritage from falling prey to the malfeasance of treasure hunters. Common people are unaware of the repercussions of the steady deprivation of their own heritage. Stealing antiquities is akin to a double whammy for a country which has been a victim of terrorism for the past four decades. Firstly, loss of heritage is a gradual process of delinking from the history, both cultural and physical, of an ancient civilisation. Bereft of ancient sculpture and architecture which reached its pinnacle long before the modern world did, the youth will grow up in a vacuum oblivious to a glorious past which in turn is a motivation to move forward. Secondly, and ironically, the criminal syndicate working in tandem with terror networks are allowed to finance themselves by selling the looted antiquities to wreak havoc in the country.

Though there might be no direct evidence linking terrorism to stolen heritage items and antiquities in India, to deny the fact that the massive amounts involved in the illicit trade of art and artefacts, which as per Global Financial Integrity is worth Rs 40,000 crore per year, would go unnoticed by terror networks is akin to pretending like the ostrich burying its head in the sand. The implications of this loot on security are grave and can be ignored at India’s peril. The UNSC resolution 2199 is an explicit acknowledgment of the spreading tentacles of terrorism towards depriving the world of its heritage and utilising it as a financial tool.

Stealing antiquities is perhaps the easiest way for terror organisations to raise funds in India. Unprotected heritage sites, lackadaisical policing, public apathy and terror cells with their avowed proclamation to disintegrate India, combine to make a deadly cocktail. The cocktail becomes fatal when a petty thief or drug addict can walk into an unguarded temple/heritage site and coolly lift a Nataraja idol which could end up being sold in international market at $5 million with the money going into the coffers of some Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT). Like a black comedy, if you don’t take care of your Gods, the Gods might return the compliments.

PDF of article here

The AC Digs Into: The Painted Queen

The Painted Queen brings Amelia Peabody, Egyptologist and amateur detective, and her loving husband, world famous archaeologist, Dr. Radcliff Emerson, back for one last adventure: the discovery of the bust of Queen Nefertiti.

The author, Egyptologist Dr. Barbara Mertz, under the penname Elizabeth Peters, consistently wove fascinating, detailed, and often historically accurate stories about the golden age of archaeology in Egypt, and The Painted Queen is the perfect capstone to her work. Her characters are entrancing, her depictions of the era come alive, the repertoire is engaging and witty, and while a fun read, one can’t help but walk away without having learned a history lesson. Sadly, Dr. Mertz passed away before completing the book, but her good friend and fellow author, Joan Hess was able to seamlessly pick up the pen.

In this thrilling novel, Peabody and Emerson are pursued by assassins, while still successfully excavating the ancient site of Armana. As fans of the Peabody series will recall, Armana is where Peabody and Emerson first met, making this a suitable setting for the end of this captivating series.

A touching tribute accompanies the story from accomplished Egyptologist and friend of the author, Dr. Selima Ikram. “One of the great delights of the Amelia Peabody books is that in each one, Amelia combines murder, mayhem, and mystery with solid doses of Egyptology and history,” she says. Dr. Ikram supported Hess in her research, ensuring that historic details and descriptions of excavation practices were accurately depicted.

Qatar National Library Joins International Network of Partners Contributing to Digital Library of the Middle East, an Antiquities Coalition Initiative


Washington, DC, August 22, 2017—The Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) and Qatar National Library (QNL) yesterday signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for cooperation to develop, enhance, and make available digitized cultural heritage content through the Digital Library of the Middle East (DLME).

The DLME is a collaborative effort that aspires to create a sustainable digital environment for the cultural heritage of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, while providing an array of applications, tools, and descriptions that enrich the content, facilitate sophisticated inquiry, and engage with the widest possible community of practice.

The CLIR-QNL MoU aims to foster future collaboration in raising awareness and advancing understanding of the MENA region’s cultural heritage and supporting its preservation by creating sustainable, long-term information environments for preservation of and access to cultural heritage. In addition, the MoU will support work to respond to the destruction of cultural heritage, educate a worldwide audience, and promote respect for the historical record. The organizations will achieve this through the activation of likeminded populations and outreach activities (locally, regionally, and internationally), alongside the development of partnerships with content-rich institutions and models for international cooperation.

“Our partnership with Qatar National Library marks a pivotal turn for the Digital Library of the Middle East,” said CLIR President Charles Henry. “The technical expertise, content, and insight that QNL brings to this project are extraordinary and we are delighted to work in this shared vision with the library’s distinguished staff and leadership who will contribute integrally to the success of the project.”

QNL Executive Director Sohair Wastawy said, “We are delighted to be a founding member of the DLME and to be a partner with CLIR. The history of the Middle East is a cornerstone of the history of civilization and preserving it is not only a cultural mandate but also an obligation we have toward future generations.”

Peter Herdrich, co-founder of The Antiquities Coalition, a core DLME founder, said, “Qatar National Library is an unrivaled international partner for the Digital Library of the Middle East. We share the goal of designing and implementing solutions and creating a cooperative community in the MENA region in service to the cultural record. This is an exciting development.”

For more information about the Digital Library of the Middle East, please visit:

About CLIR

CLIR ( is an independent, nonprofit organization that forges strategies to enhance research, teaching, and learning environments in collaboration with libraries, cultural institutions, and communities of higher learning. CLIR promotes forward-looking collaborative solutions that transcend disciplinary, institutional, professional, and geographic boundaries in support of the public good. Among CLIR’s programs is the Digital Library Federation (DLF;, an international network of member institutions and robust community of practice advancing research, learning, social justice, and the public good through digital library technologies.

CLIR Twitter: @CLIRNews

About the Qatar National Library

Vision: “To be one of the world’s preeminent centers of learning, research, and culture; a guardian of the region’s heritage; and an institution that promotes discovery and the nourishment of the human spirit.”

Qatar National Library (QNL), a member of the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, acts as a steward of Qatar’s national heritage by collecting, preserving and making available the country’s recorded history. In its role as a research library with a preeminent heritage collection, QNL fosters and promotes greater global insight into the history and culture of the Gulf region. As a public library, QNL provides equal access for all Qatari residents to an environment that supports creativity, independent decision-making and cultural development. Through all its functions, QNL provides leadership to the country’s library and cultural heritage sector.

QNL also supports Qatar’s transition from a reliance on natural resources to become a diversified and sustainable economy by providing support to students, researchers, and the public to promote life-long learning and empower individuals and communities for a better future. The QNL project was announced on 19 November 2012 by Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, Chairperson of Qatar Foundation, and the library will open its doors for the first time on November 7, 2017.

Twitter: @QNLib

Qatar National Library Media Contacts:

Gihan M. Baraka
Communications Manager
Telephone: +974 4454 6034

Kummam Al-Maadeed
Public and Media Relations Specialist
Telephone: +974 6677 3570

Global Organizations acknowledge Cultural Heritage Protection as instrumental in the fight against terrorism, pledge to prevent further destruction.

Terrorism and other threats to national security financed by the illicit trade in antiquities have spurred governments and international organizations to take action to protect cultural heritage in war-torn countries.

Violent extremist groups like Da’esh and Al-qaeda, have for years been looting ancient sites to fund their activities and also as part of their ideological commitment to cultural genocide.

The United Nations Security Council recently passed a resolution condemning the deliberate destruction of cultural heritage as a war crime due to its ability to erode societies and “exacerbate conflict and hamper post conflict national reconciliation.”

In passing Resolution 2347 on March 24th 2017, the Security Council further recognized that terrorist groups, by engaging in the illicit antiquities trade, were not only generating income, but were actively, “undermining the security, stability, governance, social, economic and cultural development of affected States.”

Systematic destruction and trafficking of cultural property is being carried out across areas of armed conflict at an alarming rate, Irina Bokova, Director General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, told the Council.

“Defending cultural heritage is more than a cultural issue, it is a security imperative, inseparable from that of defending human lives,” Bokova said. “Weapons are not enough to defeat violent extremism. Building peace requires culture also; it requires education, prevention, and the transmission of heritage. This is the message of this historic resolution.”

The resolution in March is just one in a series of measures taken over recent years to try and stop cultural looting.

Having witnessed the deliberate and widespread destruction of cultural heritage and religious sites by Da’esh and other extremist organizations in 2014, the Security Council passed a 2015 resolution condemning the destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq and Syria, and determining that all member States “shall take appropriate steps to prevent the trade in Iraqi and Syrian cultural property.” The body also called on UNESCO and the International Police (INTERPOL) and to assist in the implementation of the resolution.

The then-Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Iyad Ameen Madani stated that the cultural cleansing in Iraq and Syria at the hands of Da’esh “was at variance with all religious and humanitarian values and international norms, which encourage the protection of monuments and places of worship and all cultural, religious and civilisational symbols.”

He added that “criminal acts such as this are aimed at destroying harmony among peoples of different cultures and peaceful coexistence.”

So far this year, in addition to efforts by the UN, other international bodies have taken a more decided position against cultural destruction and looting.

In March, the G7 Ministers of Culture signed the Florence Declaration, affirming their belief that cultural heritage “contributes to the preservation of identity and memory of mankind and encourages dialogue and cultural exchanges among nations, thereby fostering tolerance, mutual understanding, recognition and respect for diversity.”

The Ministers expressed their concern over not only the continued destruction of cultural property, due to terrorism, armed conflict and natural disaster, but also the marked increase in looting on a global scale.

The Florence Declaration also stated the G7’s belief that a more effective implementation of “existing international legal instruments” was necessary and, called upon States to assist in the protection of cultural heritage endangered by armed conflict and illicit activity.

The group urged the Chairman of the G7 to organize subsequent meetings of Ministers of Culture, as well as other cultural authorities, so as to more efficiently monitor the crises, and progress of efforts.

The G20 made similar statements at their annual meeting held in July 2017. As in 2016, the Group announced its commitment to tackling all “sources, techniques and channels” of terrorist income, including the looting of cultural property.

It has been encouraging to see other intergovernmental organizations, such as INTERPOL and the World Customs Organization, step forward as well, asking custom officials and antiquity dealers to take a more active role in preventing antiquity theft.

Most recently, the European Commission submitted a proposal to ‘clamp down,’ on the illegal importation and trafficking of cultural goods from outside the European Union as part of a larger effort “to strengthen the fight against terrorism financing.”

The Commission’s First Vice President, Frans Timmermans stated: “Money is oxygen to terrorist organizations such as Daesh. We are taking action to cut off each of their sources of financing. This includes the trade of cultural goods, as terrorists derive funding from the looting of archeological sites and illegal sale of cultural objects.”

The increased interest taken by heads of state and international organizations in the preservation of cultural heritage is a promising development. The Antiquities Coalition encourages all parties to follow through on their words by working to implement effective policy and legal procedure that will ensure the survival of cultural heritage.

This is a guest post by our intern Ayla Mangold. Ayla is currently a Masters Candidate at the George Washington University, earning a degree in Museum Studies. She is particularly interested in the intersection of national security and cultural heritage preservation. If you’re interested in interning with the Antiquities Coalition, please email

New Orleans Cemeteries Thefts are Case Study for Delegation Combating Trafficking in Antiquities

This is cross posed from the New Orleans Citizen Diplomacy Council e-newsletter.
Panelists discuss New Orleans cemeteries thefts at Tulane Law School

From July 25-29 a delegation of 17 museum curators, archeologists, and others traveled to New Orleans through the U.S. Department of State’s International Visitor Leadership Program with the theme “Combatting Looting And Trafficking In Conflict Antiquities.” On July 27 a panel discussion at Tulane Law School on “New Orleans Cemeteries Thefts: Lessons Learned” provided a local example of methods to prevent looting and trafficking of cultural heritage.

The panelists included Capt. Frederick Morton (NOPD Retired), who investigated the ring of thefts from New Orleans cemeteries in the late 1990s; Ms. Emily Ford, Founder of Oak and Laurel Cemetery Preservation, LLC; and Ms. Christine Halling, Archeologist with the Louisiana Attorney General’s Office. It was moderated by Ms. Tess Davis, Executive Director of the Antiquities Coalition.

From the discussion the delegation learned about the thefts of statues, urns and other objects from New Orleans area cemeteries and the subsequent state laws enacted to prevent the sale of stolen items. The panelists credited the reduction of thefts and increased public awareness of the issue to active citizens, dedicated law enforcement, and the vigilance and persistence of the tomb owners. Capt. Morton stressed the importance of engaging the media to promote publicity of the thefts and emphasizing the strong emotional attachments of the families to the stolen artifacts. Ms. Halling acknowledged that e-commerce sites can serve as easy way to traffic stolen items, but can also serve as a tool to help locate them. And Emily Ford discussed her work with individual tomb owners and the Archdiocese in providing involvement and oversight in tomb care and inventory.

In addition to the panel discussion, the delegation enjoyed Presentation on “Art Law and Cultural Property Law” by Mr. Herbert Larson, Professor of the Practice and Executive Director, International Legal Studies and Graduate Programs and Tess Davis. Professor Herb Larson discussed art law and cultural property law, and Ms. Davis talked about her work in combating trafficking in antiquities on behalf of the Antiquities Coalition. They discussed the recent Hobby Lobby case in which the arts and crafts chain agreed to pay $3 million fine to settle a federal case over smuggled Iraqi antiquities it purchased.

In addition to the sessions at Tulane Law School, the delegation enjoyed a New Orleans city tour, a visit to the New Orleans Museum of Art with Director Susan Taylor, and a meeting at the National World War II Museum with Ms. Erin Clancey, Director of Curatorial Services, Ms. Toni Kiser, Assistant Director of Collections Management, Ms. Kimberly Guise, Assistant Director of Curatorial Services.

Getting Dirty with Larry Rothfield

Lawrence Rothfield is associate professor of English and   Comparative Literature at the University of Chicago, where he is currently directing a major three year research initiative on illicit antiquities markets, “The Past for Sale: New Approaches to the Study of Archaeological Looting.”



If you could recommend one thing to better protect heritage, what would it be?

A Pigovian (corrective) tax on antiquities. This would raise funds to support anti-looting efforts, would reduce demand, and would give the antiquities trade an incentive to clean up their act.

If you could have lived in any era in any civilization, when and where would it have been?

Renaissance Florence, the crucible of modern politics, cultural policy, and recognizably modern efforts to unearth and make sense of the ancient past.

What attracted you to your profession? 

My dissertation advisor was the Palestinian intellectual Edward Said, who showed me it was possible to use one’s interpretive skills to criticize policies. Protecting heritage and culture is a policy challenge less intractable than the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but it is one that is both intellectually complex (what exactly is heritage? culture? How do cultural markets work? How do we measure the social costs of losing heritage or culture? What is the relation between knowledge and aesthetic value? Who should pay to protect the past?) and yet has real-world consequences.

What is one piece of advice can you give the next generation who seek to follow in your footsteps?

Heritage policy is not recognized as a subdiscipline in public policy, nor in anthropology or sociology or any other field. That means that even if you are the world’s leading expert on illicit antiquities markets, you may not find it easy to land a tenure-track job, especially in today’s horrible academic job market. Get tenure first by working on a topic that your discipline cares about; post-tenure you are free to shift to studying heritage.

What is something that few people know about you?

In my spare time, I’ve written a fictional thriller screenplay that made it into the semifinals of the Austin Film Festival (the major screenwriters’ festival) drawing on what I learned in writing my book about the looting of the Iraq Museum.

What are you most proud of accomplishing?

In the aftermath of the 2003 invasion, I organized a multi-day retreat that for the first time brought together all the stakeholders who collectively failed to secure Iraq’s natinal museum and sites – the Pentagon, State Department, uniformed military, UNESCO, heritage NGOs, archaeologists, etc. – to figure out what went wrong and make recommendations to ensure something like this could never happen again. Many of the attendees had never met each other before, and so in addition to getting a crucial sentence added to the military’s war-planning bible stipulating that cultural sites must be secured during invasions, the retreat helped foster a new network that in the years since has done much to drive heritage protection efforts in the US.

Conflict Antiquities: A Terrorist Financing Risk

The United States remains the world’s largest single market for arts and antiquities—making up 29.5% of the global total. However, it also remains highly unregulated, and thus dangerously susceptible to crimes such as trafficking, money laundering, and even terrorist financing.

In its latest infographic, the Antiquities Coalition explores this terrorist financing risk, taking a closer look at the millions of dollars in cultural property that continue to flow into the American art market. In 2016 alone, $146,960,100 worth came into the United States, just in declared imports of arts, collectors pieces, and antiques (H.S. Code Chapter 97) from the world’s ten nations with the most terrorist activity.* All of these countries have a rich cultural heritage, which is under threat from looting and trafficking, and all also have ties to violent extremist organizations, many of which are already known to fund themselves through cultural racketeering.

No one knows just how much money terrorists are making on antiquities looting and trafficking, but as this infographic shows, even the most conservative estimates have grave implications for security around the globe. Most major governments, including the United States, have committed to take aggressive action to halt the illicit trade and ensure that the U.S. market is not a source of financing for terrorism.  However, thus far, the United States has only imposed import restrictions on antiquities from three of these countries—Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. For the other seven, criminals, armed insurgents, and terrorists trafficking antiquities still have easy access to the multi-million dollar U.S. market.

Closing our art market to conflict antiquities will help to cut off an important source of criminal and terrorist financing—while also protecting our world heritage and the legitimate art market. To learn more, explore our website, and follow us on social media.

*Subheading 9706: Antiques Exceeding an Age of 100 Years made up a shocking 90% of Chapter 97 imports from Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria, and nearly half from the top ten countries overall. Please stay tuned to the Antiquities Coalition blog for a more detailed breakdown of these figures.

Terrorist Financing Risk Sources

Bindner, Laurence. Illicit Trade and Terrorism Financing. Center for the Analysis of Terrorism, 2016, Illicit Trade and Terrorism Financing,

Brisard, Jean-Charles, and Gabriel Poirot. Le Financement Des Attentats De Paris (7-9 Janvier Et 13 Novembre 2015). Center for the Analysis of Terrorism, 2016, Le Financement Des Attentats De Paris (7-9 Janvier Et 13 Novembre 2015),

Cline, Lawrence E., and Paul Shemella. The Future of Counterinsurgency: Contemporary Debates in Internal Security Strategy. Praeger, an Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2015.

Global Terrorism Index 2016. IEP, 2016, Global Terrorism Index 2016,

Hardy, Samuel A. “Samuel Andrew Hardy: Archaeomafias Traffic Antiquities as Well as Drugs.” UNESCO. N.p., 18 Apr. 2016. Web.

“How to Smuggle a Saint Out of India.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 26 July 2015. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

“ISIL and Antiquities Trafficking FBI Warns Dealers, Collectors About Terrorist Loot.” Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 26 Aug. 2015,

“ISIL Leader’s Loot.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State,

Oftedal, Emilie. The Financing of Jihadi Terrorist Cells in Europe. FFI, 2015, The Financing of Jihadi Terrorist Cells in Europe,

Pownall, Rachel A.J. TEFAF Art Market Report 2017. 2017, TEFAF Art Market Report 2017.

The Kushan Buddhas: Nancy Wiener, Douglas Latchford and New Questions about Ancient Buddhas.” CHASING APHRODITE, 15 May 2015,

Wolfinbarger, Susan, et al. Ancient History, Modern Destruction: Assessing the Status of Syria’s Tentative World Heritage Sites Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery. 1st ed., AAAS, 2014, Ancient History, Modern Destruction: Assessing the Status of Syria’s Tentative World Heritage Sites Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery,