But the bravest measures are those of the locals themselves. In Mosul townsfolk rushed to the defence of a famous leaning medieval minaret when IS tried to destroy it. Mr Teijgeler of Heritage for Peace has re-employed 150 former antiquities officials who worked in the two-thirds of Syria that is now rebel-held. Some have taken to three-dimensional imaging to provide models for the time when the region begins to rebuild itself, while burying what remains. Others have rescued antiquities, including the mosaics ripped from a church wall in Idlib, in north-western Syria. And a few try to persuade. Mr Teijgeler is designing a training course for Syrian jihadists on the merits of preserving the past. Perhaps minds will change. IS recently published a travel brochure celebrating what ancient sites in Mosul still remain.